The free market is an economic system based on supply and demand with little or no government control. It is a summary description of all voluntary exchanges that take place in a given economic environment. Free markets are characterized by a spontaneous and decentralized order of arrangements through which individuals make economic decisions. Based on its political and legal rules, a country’s free market economy may range between very large or entirely black market.

Investopedia Definition

Market economies assume price reflects value. Buyers choose to purchase the goods and services that give the most value for the lowest cost. Supposedly…


Community infrastructure produces output that members of a community need or want. Today there are two primary sources of money to fund infrastructure — private corporations and governments. Private corporations raise money by promising investors a return on investment with a share of profits. Governments raise money by taxing corporations and individuals by taking a percentage of their profits or earnings.

Over time, in both cases, the money invested comes from community consumers. In both cases, private investors or governments end up owning community infrastructure.

There is a third way that has declined over the years. The approach is mutual…


efficiency: the good use of time and energy in a way that does not waste any — Cambridge Dictionary.

The daily value of foreign exchange was $6.6 trillion in 2019, while world trade's daily value was $0.052 trillion. The foreign exchange market sets the price of money, and the trades to accomplish this is over 100 times the value of goods and services the FX market serves.

Today’s Money markets are dysfunctional and inefficient.

We find similar results in most money markets. Money markets are inefficient in achieving their purpose of setting the price of money. …


Equal investing means every dollar of every investor has an equal value when invested in a business. Investing today is far from this ideal. The value of an investment depends on who invests when they invest and how much they invest. Equal investing changes this so that business investments get an equal value for each investment dollar.

Equal investing achieves its goal by redefining the meaning of equity. Instead of equity being a share of the businesses assets, equity is a share in the business's future output. The cost of future output is the same for all buyers, and buyers…


Housing democracy means every citizen has equal access to funds to own the house in which they can afford to live. Today’s monetised housing market fails this simple test. The housing market is undemocratic and unfair because it has become a way for investors to make money rather than a market in places to live.

Those with money can always outbid those without money. Investors who have no intention of living in a house will set the market price and increase the cost for those who need housing in which to live. The system is made worse by the way…


The levelised cost of energy (LCOE) is a measure of energy cost used to help decide energy projects.

Assume equal costs and an equal amount of output each year. The Levelised Cost of Energy approximates to:

LCOE = Total Cost divided by the total output.

Total Cost = Capital Cost + Cost of Interest + Cost of Operations

Total Output = Sum of the kWh each year.

When a community borrows money from outside the community, the calculation includes the Cost of Interest. The interest adjusts for the time difference between incurring costs and producing electricity. Costs today have more…


Stranded Asset Compensation

A common approach to compensate for the loss of an asset is the asset swap. This proposal suggests a swap of the investment dollars coal miners have sunk into coal mines and not recovered plus the funds required to close the coal mines and reclaim the land. The swap is to give coal mines investment dollars if they invest the money in community-owned renewable energy using inflation-indexed community loans. The export coal-miners can invest in clean green hydrogen from solar power and water to sell on export markets. …


Community Loans are used to purchase or build community assets for the benefit of the community. The community owns the assets, and community members become custodians of a subset of the assets. For example, some local community members may decide to pool their resources to purchase and maintain the dwellings in which they live. Another community of businesses might decide to collectively own the shop and office space where they conduct their businesses. The community group (be it a company or a cooperative or a trust) becomes the assets owner. …


Capitalist — a person who has capital especially invested in a business.
A definition from Merriam-Webster

Capital can take many forms. An ancient form of capital is custodianship. Custodianship is the obligation to look after capital and gain a benefit from its use. Community loans is a way for consumers to obtain capital over which they have custodianship.

Capital in the form of payment for future use is economically efficient and typically provides twice the investment value for long term assets compared to individual ownership of assets. Community capital

  • removes the need for expensive financial products,
  • uses the efficient payment…


The mechanics of the financial and monetary systems dominate economic thinking. Gross Domestic Product or the cost of buying and selling goods and services measures wealth. Value equates to price, and money can earn more money simply by existing. Today the transfer of money and its derivatives is thousands of time more than the transfer of value of goods and services. Money is the measure of wealth, and it isn't easy to equate non-monetary benefits with cash.

The result is a system that values the production of money as much as the production of goods and services. It means an…

Kevin Cox

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